Pakistan

Sufi music

Sufi music is the devotional music of the Sufis, inspired by the works of Sufi poets, like Rumi, Hafiz, Bulleh Shah and Khwaja Ghulam Farid.

Qawwali is the most well known form of Sufi music, common in India and Pakistan. However, music is also central to the Sema ceremony of the whirling dervishes, which is set to a form of music called Ayin, a vocal and instrumental piece featuring Turkish classical instruments such as the ney (a reed flute). The West African gnawa is another form, and Sufis from Indonesia to Afghanistan to Morocco have made music central to their practises. Some of the Sufi orders have taken an approach more akin to puritan forms of Islam, declaring music to be unhelpful to the Sufi way.

Sufi love songs are often performed as ghazals and Kafi, a solo genre accompanied by percussion and harmonium, using a repertoire of songs by Sufi poets.

Shehnai

Shehnai

The shehnai, shahnai, shenai or mangal vadya is a double-reed conical oboe common in North India, West India and Pakistan.

A member of the wind family, it is made of a hollow tube of seasoned and resonant wood with a flared metal bell fixed at the end. It is about 50cm long and has seven finger holes.

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Hindustani music

Salamat Ali Khan

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Hindustani music
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Thumri

Qawwali

Qawwali (Nastaʿlīq: قوّالی; Gurmukhī: ਕੱ਼ਵਾਲੀ; Devanāgarī: क़व्वाली) is a form of Sufi devotional music popular in South Asia, particularly in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan, Hyderabad, Delhi, and other parts of northern India. It is a musical tradition that stretches back more than 700 years.

Originally performed mainly at Sufi shrines or dargahs throughout South Asia, it has now gained mainstream popularity. Qawwali music received international exposure through the work of the late Pakistani singer Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, largely due to several releases on the Real World label, followed by live appearances at WOMAD festivals. Other famous Qawwali singers include Pakistan's Sabri Brothers, Bahauddin Qutbuddin and Aziz Mian.

Daf

Daf

The daf is a circular frame drum found in the Middle East, Pakistan, Turkey, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan and India. Covered with animal skin on one side (usually goat), and sometimes equipped with rings or small cymbals, the percussion instrument has characteristics similar to that of a tambourine. Striking the instrument in different spots with the fingers produces a variety of tones and colours.

Performance techniques vary from country to country, however its soft, deep sonorous tone makes the instrument ubiquitous with vocal accompaniment.

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Afghan rubab

rubab

The Afghan rubab is a lute-like instrument originating in Afghanistan.

However, its name as well as its shape suggests that it may have evolved from the rebab, a bowed instrument. Typically, the Afghan rubab is carved out of a single piece of wood, with a membrane covering the hollow sound-chamber. The wood is taken from a Mulberry tree, the skin is usually goat skin and the strings are made from gut. The rubab can also be found in the mountainous regions of Pakistan and India. The tone of the Afghan rubab is extremely warm and beautiful.

 
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Thumri

Thumri (Devnagari: ठुमरी, Nastaliq: ٹھمری) is a common genre of semi-classical Indian music.

The text is romantic or devotional in nature, and usually revolves around a girl's love for Krishna. The lyrics are usually in Uttar Pradesh dialects of Hindi called Poorbi and Brij Bhasha. Thumri is characterized by its sensuality, and by a greater flexibility with the raga.

Thumri is also used as a generic name for some other, even lighter, forms such as Dadra, Hori, Kajari, Saavan, Jhoola, and Chaiti, even though each of them has its own structure and content — either lyrical or musical or both — and so the exposition of these forms vary. Like Indian classical music itself, some of these forms have their origin in folk literature and music.

Ghazal

The ghazal (Arabic/Pashto/Persian/Urdu: غزل; Hindi: ग़ज़ल, Punjabi: ਗ਼ਜ਼ਲ, Turkish: gazel, Gujarati: ગ઼ઝલ) is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th century Arabic verse.

In its style and content it is a genre which has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation. It is one of the principal poetic forms which the Indo-Perso-Arabic civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world.

The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century under the influence of the new Islamic Sultanate courts and Sufi mystics. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Dari poetry and Urdu poetry, today it is found in the poetry of many languages of Indian sub-continent.

Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), the ghazal became very popular in Germany in the 19th century, and the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert (1788–1866) and August von Platen (1796–1835). The Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of "real ghazals in English".

In some ghazals the poet's name is featured somewhere in the last verse (a convention known as takhallus).

Fusion music

Fusion music that combines two or more styles. The main characteristics of fusion genres are variations in tempo, rhythm, dynamics, style and tempo. 'Fusion' used alone often refers to jazz fusion, especially with world music.

Fusion music as a genre has broadened the definitions of jazz, rock, and pop music.

Dilruba

Dilruba

The dilruba is a string instrument found in the north of India, where it is used in religious music and light classical songs in the urban areas. (The esraj or israj is found throughout the north, central and east regions of India.) It is a young instrument by Indian terms, being only about 200 years old.  

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Hindustani music
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