Afghanistan

Dutar

Dutar

The dutar, dotar or doutar (Persian: دو تار, Tajik: дутор, Uzbek: dutor) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran and central and south Asia. Its name comes from the Persian word for 'two strings', دو تار dotār ( دو do 'two' and تار tār 'string'), although the Herati dutar of Afghanistan has fourteen strings. When played, the strings are usually plucked by the Uyghurs of Western China and strummed and plucked by the Tajiks, Turkmen, Uzbeks, Afghan people, and in Pakistan.

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Saz

Saz

The saz (from the Persian ساز‎, meaning 'kit' or 'set') or bağlama (from the Turkish bağlamak, 'to tie') is a plucked stringed musical instrument shared by various cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean, Near East, and Central Asia.

 

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Afghan rubab

rubab

The Afghan rubab is a lute-like instrument originating in Afghanistan.

However, its name as well as its shape suggests that it may have evolved from the rebab, a bowed instrument. Typically, the Afghan rubab is carved out of a single piece of wood, with a membrane covering the hollow sound-chamber. The wood is taken from a Mulberry tree, the skin is usually goat skin and the strings are made from gut. The rubab can also be found in the mountainous regions of Pakistan and India. The tone of the Afghan rubab is extremely warm and beautiful.

 
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Ghazal

The ghazal (Arabic/Pashto/Persian/Urdu: غزل; Hindi: ग़ज़ल, Punjabi: ਗ਼ਜ਼ਲ, Turkish: gazel, Gujarati: ગ઼ઝલ) is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th century Arabic verse.

In its style and content it is a genre which has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation. It is one of the principal poetic forms which the Indo-Perso-Arabic civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world.

The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century under the influence of the new Islamic Sultanate courts and Sufi mystics. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Dari poetry and Urdu poetry, today it is found in the poetry of many languages of Indian sub-continent.

Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), the ghazal became very popular in Germany in the 19th century, and the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert (1788–1866) and August von Platen (1796–1835). The Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of "real ghazals in English".

In some ghazals the poet's name is featured somewhere in the last verse (a convention known as takhallus).

Fusion music

Fusion music that combines two or more styles. The main characteristics of fusion genres are variations in tempo, rhythm, dynamics, style and tempo. 'Fusion' used alone often refers to jazz fusion, especially with world music.

Fusion music as a genre has broadened the definitions of jazz, rock, and pop music.

Tabla

Tabla

The tabla or tabl, (Hindi: तबला, Marathi: तबला, Tamil: தபேலா, Nepali: तबला, Urdu: طبلہ, Arabic: طبل، طبلة‎) is a popular Indian percussion instrument of the membranophone family. It is used in Hindustani (North Indian Classical) music and in popular and devotional music of the Indian subcontinent. The term 'tabla' is derived from an Arabic word, tabl, which simply means 'drum'.

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Hindustani music
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Herati Dotar

Herati Dotar

The Herati dutar, dotar or doutar (Persian: دو تار , Tajik: дутор, Uzbek: dutor) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found from Afghanistan with fourteen strings.

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Doira

Doira

The doira (also dayereh, doyra, dojra, dajre or dajreja) is a medium-sized frame drum with jingles, used to accompany both popular and classical music in Iran (Persia), the Balkans, and many Central Asian countries such as Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan. Frame drums are also popular in many regions of Georgia, like Kartli, Kakheti, Tusheti, Samegrelo, Racha, and Imereti.

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Persian Classical Music
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Daf

Dotar

Dotar

The dutar, dotar or doutar (Persian: دو تار , Tajik: дутор, Uzbek: dutor) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran, Central Asia and South Asia. Its name comes from the Persian word for 'two strings', although the Herati dutar of Afghanistan has fourteen. When played, the strings are usually plucked by the Uyghurs of Western China and strummed and plucked by the Tajiks, Turkmen, Uzbeks, Afghan people, and in Pakistan.

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Kemenche

Kemenche

The kemenche, kamānche or kamāncha (Persian: کمانچه) is a Persian bowed string instrument related to the bowed rubab. It is the historical ancestor of the kamancheh and also to the bowed lira of the Byzantine Empire, ancestor of the European violin family. The strings are played with a variable-tension bow: the word 'kamancheh' means 'little bow' in Persian. It is widely used in the classical music of Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, with slight variations in the structure of the instrument. In Kashmir, the kemanche is known as saaz-i-kashmir.

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Persian Classical Music
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